Advanced Gui Abstractions¶
Concept of Gui in Arjuna¶
Graphical User Interfaces are represented using the Gui class in Arjuna. It provides all methods to interact with the Gui as well for creation of objects for its visual elements.
Arjuna has three types of Gui’s, namely GuiApp, GuiPage and GuiSection and any children thereof.
Note that GuiDialog is an alias for GuiSection currently, but this behavior could change in future.
The GuiApp Class¶
In addition to directly creating an object of App, you can also inherit from it and extend it.
class WordPress(GuiApp): def __init__(self): super().__init__(url=url)
Within the class’ methods, you can now access its methods directly:
self.gns.abc # Element for abc label in GNS self.launch()
The GuiPage Class¶
You can implement a GuiPage by inheriting from GuiPage class:
class Home(GuiPage): def __init__(self, source_gui): super().__init__(source_gui=source_gui)
A GuiPage must be provided with a source_gui i.e. the Gui from where the page is being created.
The GuiSection Class¶
You can implement a GuiSection by inheriting from GuiSection class:
class LeftNav(GuiSection): def __init__(self, page): url = C("wp.login.url") super().__init__(parent_gui=page)
A GuiSection must be provided with a page i.e. the GuiPage for which the section is being created.
Gui Abstraction Models¶
App Model using App class¶
You can implement a class as a GuiApp by using inheritance. This is the suggested way of implenting a web application abstraction in Arjuna.
This is the simplest way to get started with an equivalent of GuiPage Object Model (POM), GuiPage Factories, Loadable Component, all clubbed into one concept. We represent the complete appplication as a single class which is attached to a a single GNS file for externalization. It should work well for small apps or where you are automating only a small sub-set of the application.
App-Page Model using GuiApp and GuiPage Classes¶
For professional test automation, where you automate multiple use cases across different pages/screens, a simple App Model will not suffice. In the simple App Model, the GNS file will be cluttered with labels from multiple pages and the GuiApp class will have so many methods that it will impact code mainteance and understandability.
- One step forward from Arjuna’s App Model is the App-Page Model:
You implement the web application as a child of GuiApp class.
We implemented each web page of interest as a child of GuiPage class.
The GuiPage classes have methods to move from one page to another.
App-Page-Section Model using GuiApp, GuiPage and GuiSection Classes¶
- Consider the following:
Typcally, the web applications follow a set of a templates for different pages. Such templates have some repetitive sections across multiple pages. Examples: Left navigation bars, Top Menus, Sidebars etc.
Some application pages might be two complex to be represented as a single page.
Some similar HTML components like tables etc. are resued across multiple pages as a part of their contents.
Unless you address the above in the way you implement the Gui abstraction, the code will not clearly represent the Gui. Also, even if externalized, this could result in repeated identifiers across different GNS files.
- One step forward from Arjuna’s App-GuiPage Model is the App-GuiPage-GuiSection Model:
Implement the web application as a child of GuiApp class.
Implement each web page of interest as a child of GuiPage class.
GuiPages inherit from different template base pages to represent common structures.
Reusables page portions are implemented as GuiSections and a correct composition relationship is established between a GuiPage and its GuiSections using OOP.
In short, Apps have pages and a page can have sections.
Arjuna’s Gui Loading Model¶
All Gui**s follow the **Gui Loading Mechanism in Arjuna. For a GuiApp, loading logic is triggered when it is launched (launch method called). For GuiPage and GuiSection it takes place as a part of initialization (super().__init__() call.)
We can hook into the mechanism by implementing one or more of the three hooks made available by Arjuna to all Gui**s. We don’t need to do anything special to the **Gui classes to make it happen. It is available by default. On the other end, if we don’t want to use it, we don’t need to do anything at all because all the hook methods are optional.
It draws inspiration from Selenium Java’s implementation of Loadable Component but it is Arjuna’s custom implementation using its own conditions and wait mechanism.
Gui’s prepare method is called with any *args and **kwargs provided in the __init__ implementation of a child Gui. This is the method which you use for externalization of Gui definitions.
Root Element is polled for, if defined, until ArjunaOption.GUIAUTO_MAX_WAIT number of seconds. In case of exception, loading stops here and GuiNotLoadedError is raised.
Anchor Element is polled for, if defined, until ArjunaOption.GUIAUTO_MAX_WAIT number of seconds. In case of exception, loading stops here and GuiNotLoadedError is raised.
validate_readiness method is called. If it does not raise any exception, then the loading mechanism stops here.
If in step 4, an exception of type arjuna.tpi.error.WaitableError (or its sub-type) is raised, then the next steps as mentioned in Step 6 and 7 are performed, else GuiNotLoadedError exception is raised.
Gui’s reach_until method is called. If any exception is raised by it, then GuiNotLoadedError exception is raised, else step 7 is executed.
This time validate_readiness is called, but not directly. It is tied to the GuiReady condition which is polling wait-based caller. If validate_readiness raises an exception of type arjuna.tpi.error.WaitableError (or its sub-type), GuiReady condition keeps calling it until ArjunaOption.GUIAUTO_MAX_WAIT number of seconds are passed in Gui’s configuration. If successful, during the wait time, then Gui is considered loaded, else GuiNotLoadedError exception is raised.