XML is another popular format used for data exchange.


A loaded full Xml or a part of it is represented using an XmlNode object.

Creating an XmlNode Object

Arjuna’s Xml class provides various helper methods to easily create an XmlNode object from various sources:

  • from_file: Load XmlNode from a file.

  • from_str: Load XmlNode from a string.

  • from_lxml_element: From an lxml element.

The loaded object is returned as an XmlNode.

Inquiring an XmlNode Object

XmlNode object provides the following properties for inquiry:

  • node: The underlying lxml element.

  • text: Unaltered text content. Text of all children is clubbed.

  • normalized_text: Text of this node with empty lines removed and individual lines trimmed.

  • texts: Texts returned as a sequence.

  • inner_xml: Xml of children.

  • normalized_inner_xml: Normalized inner XML of this node, with empty lines removed between children nodes.

  • source: String representation of this node’s XML.

  • normalized_source: String representation of this node with all new lines removed and more than one conseuctive space converted to a single space.

  • tag: Tag name

  • chidlren: All Children of this node as a Tuple of XmlNodes

  • parent: Parent XmlNode

  • preceding_sibling: The XmlNode before this node at same hierarchial level.

  • following_sibling: The XmlNode after this node at same hierarchial level.

  • attrs: All attributes as a mapping.

  • value: Content of value attribute.

Following inquiry methods are available:
  • attr: Get value of an attribute by name.

  • has_attr: Check presence of an attribute.

Cloning an XmlNode Object

You can clone an XmlNode by calling its clone method.

Finding XmlNodes in an XmlNode Object using XPath

You can find XmlNodes in a given XmlNode object using XPath:

  • find_with_xpath: Find first match using XPath

  • findall_with_xpath Find all matches using XPath

Finding XmlNodes in an XmlNode Object using XML.node_locator

Arjuna’s NodeLocator object helps you in easily defining locating criteria.

# XmlNode with tag input
locator = Xml.node_locator(tags='input')

# XmlNode with attr 'a' with value 1
locator = Xml.node_locator(a=1)

# XmlNode with tag input and attr 'a' with value 1
locator = Xml.node_locator(tags='input', a=1)


‘tags’ can be provided as:

  • A string containing a single tag

  • A string containing multiple tags

  • A list/tuple containing multiple tags.

When multiple tags are provided, they are treated as a sequential descendant tags.

# XmlNode with tag input and attr 'a' with value 1
locator = Xml.node_locator(tags='form input', a=1)
locator = Xml.node_locator(tags=('form', 'input'), a=1)

You can search for all XMlNodes using this locator in an XmlNode:


For finer control, you can use finder methods in XmlNode object itself and provide the locator:

  • find: Find first match using XPath

  • findall Find all matches using XPath


# Returns None if not found

# Raise Exception if not found
node.find(locator, strict=True)

Providing Alternative NodeLocators (OR Relationship)

In some situations, you might want to find XmlNode(s) which match any of the provided locators.

You can provide any number of locators in XmlNode finder methods.

node.find(locator1, locator2, locator3)
node.findall(locator1, locator2, locator3)

Exiting XmlNode.findall on First Matched Locator

You can stop findall logic at first matched locator by setting stop_when_matched to True:

node.findall(locator1, locator2, locator3, stop_when_matched=True)